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History of Hastings 











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(A History Of The Mi Lf ofd-Nappanee Area) 



First In A Series 

By Kenneth Haney 

(Editor's Note: The following is the first in a series of 
articles written by Kenneth lianey on the history of Hastings, a 
small community located west of Milford). 

The first store was in one room of a house on the present 
site of the Jim Rumfelt home, and was run by grandma and 
grandpa Estep (all elderly folks were respected by these 

About 1890 a store was built by John Hoosier on the corner 
just north of Robert Ileckamans'. Mr. Hoosier was returning 
home from hauling a load of v%?ood to Milford (it is thought from 
Jacob McLaughlin, attorney) when his team ran away, throwing 
him under the wagon wheel and injuring his hip for life. 

After a few years the store was moved near the spot where 
the present 50 feet by 22 feet frame structure was built by 
George Cummins. The lower story was used for merchandise and 

- 2 - 

the upper story, an and i tor iudi , was reached by wooden steps in 
tlie northeast corner from the outside. 

It is a question who built the house, Init Daniel and Ella 
Haney, the parents of Welcome and Clara (llaney) Fox lived here 
for a time before it was purchased by Sam Estep, as well as the 
lloosier store. 

The store operators besides Estep, and Cummins were Ben 
Stump (father of William Stump and Mrs. Stoffel DeFreese), John 
Brown (later moved to Constantine, Michigan), Guy Lambert, 
Carson Wise, Joe Bushong, Orville Silveus, John Green, Robert 
Rumfelt, Don Ruple, William 'fusing, and John Kauffman, the last 
one in 1958. Mr. Tusing operated the store the longest. 

First Barber 

Claude Weimer was the first barber using one of the 
buildings and later moving to South Bend. 

Another barber, for years, was Oscar (Jim) Rumfelt. He 
had a barber chair in his kitchen for many years. Many a young 
squaling child got his first hair "shingling" (hair cut) here. 

In tlie store were kept bolts, nails and other hardware, 
coal oil (kerosene), toliacco, mainly chewing tobacco, cigars, 
anf] pipe tobacco. 

This was the period when each man "rolled" his own 
cigarettes. Some of the beginners' specimens looked like a rag 
but others resembled the commercial ones of today. Near the st 
ove was the cuspidor (spittoon) which was a must for all 
tobacco chewers. Many were accurate but others were like boys 
who tried to hit a mark with their first pea shooter. Many 
(for an excuse) said the habit was a good tooth preserver. 

In The Store 
As you came into the store you saw canned goods on the 
shelves. Old reliable and Lion Coffee, Lennox and Fels-Naptha 
soap and oodles of nature health remedies. Bulk candy such as 
striped stick candy, horehound, licorice and kisses were the 
main sellers. Other bulk products measured from the barrel 
were light brown, dark brown, soft white and granulated sugar, 
salt, and apple vinegar. Cheese was cut from a round flat roll 
and crackers were kept in a large glass container which would 
hold about a barrel. Coffee was ground on the spot by a few 
spins of the coffee grinder, which had two large balance 
v^/heels, or the beans were taken home and ground in a small 
miniature affair. 

Yard goods, thread, buttons, and lace were kept, calico 
was five cents a yard. 

On one side was a stock of horsewhips, but many used a gad 
(switch) cut from a limb of a tree, as far as I know no 
"blacksnakes" were sold. These were sewed leather with a lash 
on the end which when used severely would cut an animal's hide 
open and were very cruel and vicious. 

Before being outlawed, some one-armed bandits (slot 
machines) and punch boards were found in the store. 

The Mail 

The first mail was taken to the Hastings store when a man 
going to Milford brought his neighbors' mail along home with 

The first paid mail deliverer to Hastings, back in 1890, 
was Madison (Matt) Biller, followed by James Biller, and ending 
by Noah Tusing carrying it by horseback or wagon for four or 
five years. He left Hastings at 1 p.m. and arrived back from 
Milford at 4 p.m. for the large sum of 50 cents a trip. 

In 1905 R.F.n. came into being with Charles Orn being the 
first carrier. After a few years James Fuller became the 
likeable daily visitor until his retirement. He sometimes fed 

5 - 

his horse on the David Dausman farm. In the winter time he 
sometimes changed his horse at the half way mark. For a short 
time the horse and wagon was replaced by a motorcycle. They 
traveled the main roads and many folks had to go a half to 
three-quarters of a mile to their mail box. 


At one time there was an ice house at the back of the 
store. Ice cut from the Hollar pond, created by taking the 
clay from the hole to make brick for the Hastings school house, 
was stored in cakes, separated by and insulated by sawdust. 

When this ran out Irvin Troup, who operated the Milford 
Ice Company, delivered to Hastings. His ice house was located 
west of the present bathing beach at Waubee Lake. With ice, 
the only refrigeration in those days, the ice man was an 
important fellow on hot summer days. 

The Auditorium 
The main trading night was Saturday, as well as for 
entertainment. Square dances were held with folks coming from 
outlying places. 

At other times movies were shown and many political 
caucuses were held in the auditorium and in the school house. 

Political speeches were sometimes fiery and unless the 
party won, so they said, the country was a goner. The 
islanders took and take their politics seriously. Many a 
weighty national issue was settled by them on the cracker 
barrel and wooden boxes in which everything was shipped. 


Second in a Series 

By Kenneth Haney 

It is not known how the name originated. It could have 
come from the Battle of Hastings in 1066. It certainly was a 
battle to subdue this wilderness. 

A more likely origin would be a shortening of "hay 
s trings . " 

In the early days the marsh hay was cut with a scythe and 
put in piles. Later, in the winter, when these marshes were 
frozen it was hauled in to feed. 

These marshes and the higher ground were saturated with 
bumblebee nests. In fact the saying, "thick as bumblebees" was 
a common expression. One thing was sure - - they were 

excellent pollenizers and a cloverseed yield of three to five 
bushels per acre was not uncommon. 

A bumblebee always warns you but those wasps, yellow 
jackets and hornets were very rude in their introduction. 

Jefferson Township 

Jefferson township originally had 36 sections, but due to 
the Mt. Tabor neighborhood difficulty in getting across the 
marsh to vote at Hastings it was detached and those five 
sections were added to Scott Township. 

The boundary is a zig-zag line following the south edge of 
the marsh. 

Between the south marsh and the north marsh lies the 
island or high land, which was originally covered with virgin 
timber of all varieties. Many of the trees measured three to 
five feet "across the stump" in diameter. Except what it took 
for building, these trees were rolled together and burned for a 
"clearing." Between these stumps corn was hand planted. 

Later on the Omer Neff ditch was dug from road 1200N and 
600W to Turkey Creek. 

The Joe Armey ditch came in from the north branch of the 
Yellow River. The Dausman ditch starts about a mile southeast 
of the store and flows nearly due west into the Yellow River. 

The last one flows into the Mississippi River and the first one 
into the St. Lawrence River. Many farms have water flowing 
into both the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. 

With the coming of smaller open ditches came the "blind" 
or underground drainage. The first were open ditches in which 
small straight poles were piled and covered over with dirt 
which soon filled up. Next came two by eight's nailed to form 
a tube with the bottom side missing, this was a great 
improvement. Lastly came the clay tile and with this the 
island or "stix" took on progress. 

Three Exits 

In the early days there were only three exits - - the Orn 
road to Milford, what is now Road 19 to Nappanee and the road 
to Clunette. 

The parts over the bogs were corduroy or logs placed side 
by side crossways in the roadbed and covered Vvfith dirt. As you 
crossed these roadways you could see the ground and water far 
out moving. They were sometimes called "sink holes." After 
100 years and continual filling in, Road 19 is till "sinking." 

Some of the ditchers, who could bring up nearly a perfect 
"fall," were George Roberts, Peter Jensen, Leland Rohrer, John 

9 - 

Kaiser, and Walter Kline. This hard, backbreaking work 
certainly separated the men from the boys. 


After the lov^ering of the water level the ground was 
plowed, the tussocks carried off and sometimes the ground hand 
raked, then it was ready for onions - - the first major muck 

The onion seed was drilled in rows about lA inches wide. 
They were then wheel hoed and then weeded. 

Frank and Charlie Geiger, Mrs. Emma Lentz's brothers, were 
the giants of the local industry. They gathered all available 
island kids as well as 50 to 75 from Milford. the prevailing 
rates were 2% cents per hour for one row, five cents for two 
rows, and 7% cents for three rows or 75 cents for a 10 hour 
day . 

Whenever I think of that grinding, gritty muck on my knees 
they still hurt, but 25 cents would buy a pair of overalls. 

With large families every penny helped to put "grub" or 
"vittles" (food) on the table. 

I have seen many red and yellow globe onions as big as 
indoor balls. 

- 10 - 

After putting in "wind rows" they were hand topped at 2\ 
to ^h cents a bushel depending on size. Mrs. Emma Biller has 
topped about as many onions as anyone in the township. 

Tho?*^ Oiiion storages, some like slatted corn cribs and some 
double-walled for winter storage, held thousands of bushels. 
They were located at the corner of 1200N and 500W and have 
rotted away. The storage west of the Lentz Coal Company is 
gone and the other is now used by Spencer Chemical. 

David Dausman and the Billers were other big onion 
raisers. Henry Stieglitz and Elmer Thwaits were some of the 
more recent growers. 

In onion raising the stakes were high. You could make a 
fortune one year and lose it the next. William Wedrick and 
Fred McKown bought many a carload of onions from local growers 
- - when onions were king! 

"Onion" days in Nappanee were big events. Everyone had a 
patch and when the payroll checks were cashed by the parents 
for store items it was a boon to the economy. A nickle's worth 
of candy was "appreciated" by the kids. 

A common saying was - - An apple a day keeps the doctor 
away and an onion a day keeps everyone away - - a known fact. 

See you next week. 



(Third in a series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

In mushroom time in 1916 the island was nearly surrounded 
by water. It had rained off and on all day Sunday. That night 
there was a cloudburst and electrical display. 

Thee Haab's barn burned with the loss of five valuable 
horses. It had been struck by lightning. The marshes were 
full of water from high ground to high ground, ranging in depth 
from one to four feet. 

Digging the Neff Ditch 

Enos Hollar told me the Neff ditch was dug by a "floating" 
dredge . 

A boat was built near the bridge on road 500 or the corner 
of the George Losee farm. The wood-fired boiler, crane, and 
other equipment were then installed on the boat. 

A hole was dug by the crane, the boat slid in the water 
and the present course was dug to Turkey Creek, near the back 
of Plomer Michael's farm. 

12 - 

The wood was bought from farmers who wished to cut and 
deliver to the boat. 

The men cooked and lived on an extra boat towed along. 
The upper Ih miles were first dug by hand. 

Mr. Hollar states that many times you could skate beyond 
state road 19 by crawling over a few barbed wire fences. 


When onions began to fade out of the picture because of 
insects, lower water level, and competition, a new crop came to 
take its place. 

Hemp - - the bark or fiber from which gunny sacks, twine, 
and rope are made - - was soon to take over the marsh. This 
tough brushlike plant had no other competitor in growing. Seed 
drilled in the spring grew in thickness and height practically 
impenetrable. After cutting by machine it was tied by hand and 
put in tepee like shocks. 

For a few years scores of negroes from Kentucky came in 
and separated the fibre from the reeds (woody part) by hand. 
This "line" hemp was put in 500 pound bales. As you cast your 
eyes over the tents and shacks west of Hastings and heard the 
singing of the men at work you would have said you were in 
"Dixie," if you had seen cotton instead of hemp. 

13 - 

Road 1050 was the main road to Hastings for them to get 
supplies. They were an agreeable people to have around. My, 
how we enjoyed their banjos. 

In a few years a factory was built in Nappanee and much of 
the work was done by machinery. Many farmers spent their 
winters hauling hemp to Nappanee. 

Locally, Ernest and Joshua Zimmerman had a factory on the 
back of what is now the Henry Stieglitz farm. It operated for 
several years on mostly local labor. 

I never knew exactly what happened, some say the wrong 
kind of hemp, anyway "out of blue sky" the whole hemp business 
went "to pot" and many farmers lost their crop, labor and all. 
The stacks rotted or were burned. 

Today we have this pesky stuff growing wild on ditch banks 
and fence rows under another name - - marijuana - - a narcotic. 


And now spearmint and peppermint, which had been grown in 
small patches, came into their own. As most of you are 
acquainted with their culture I shall be brief. 

In the early 1920's high winds and a late frost wrecked 
the mint crop. The price of peppermint went to $28 a pound. 
Mason jars or jugs would hold most farmers' crop. One 
protected higher-ground-farmer sold 19 pounds at $25 and could 


have bought a "Tin Lizzie" (new Ford) with it. As usual some 
held for a higher price and still had theirs when it came down 
to seven or eight dollars. 

Did the farmers quit? Not by a jugful! Many a farmer 
gives the mint growing credit for his success. As of today it 
looks like its going the onion - - hemp way. 

Cabbage was grown in large amounts and delivered to Libby 
and McNeil at Nappanee (the sauerkraut factory) but a few years 
ago it moved out. 

Pickles were grown on many acres, delivered to the 
Hastings store and hauled to Milford. The plant was located 
near the stockyards. I believe Ed Cain was manager. 

Guy Lambert bought potatoes, carrots, and cabbage for 
Scott Company. 

These are echoes of by-gone days. As you view this 
"Garden of Eden" today - - you say - - corn, beans and on to 

Grandma Rumfelt 
Many of us have been fearful that much of this early 
history would be lost with the passing of our elders. The 
following is taken in part from a history of the Oster family 
compiled by Mrs. William (Oster) Tusing, Mrs. Daniel Oster, and 

- 15 

grandma Susan (Oster) Rumfelt in 1933: 

Grandma Rumfelt, with little formal education, but 
graduated from the school of "hard knocks", gives us a first- 
hand view of pioneer life. She was an inspiration in Christian 
living to anyone. 

My father, William Oster, was born in Switzerland in 1820. 
My mother was born in Switzerland in 1827. In due time they 
came to America, met, and married in 1846 and settled in Ohio. 
I and my sister Elizabeth Marquart, were born here. They moved 
to Marshall county, Indiana, where John was born. 

In 1850 they bought the 40 acres, where John Coldeberg's 
new house is located, from the government. It is near 
Hastings. They cleared the land and put up a rough unhewed log 
house. Later they hewed out the logs and built a better house. 
They were also pioneers of Island Chapel church, giving time, 
labor and money to build it. They were converted at a camp 
meeting near Bremen under Bishop Seybert. They would walk many 
miles to hear the Gospel preached - - an example for youth 
today . 

In this log house, Samuel, William Jr., Emanuel, Daniel, 
Edward, Katie ( Swartdlander ) and Wesley were born. Wesley was 
born six months after his father died in 1870. 

Two years later our house and all the contents burned. 

16 - 

AIL of the records of births and marriages and the family Bible 
were destroyed in the fire. With the help of kind neighbors 
another house was built and these same kind friends helped 
furnish beds, bedding, and furniture, and the family had a home 
again. Mother lived in her own home until all of us were 
married and went to her eternal rest in 1906. 

I heard my mother say she walked nine miles three days a 
week to learn to read in Switzerland. She also told how they 
stopped the boat to bury her half-brother by the big canal on 
the way to America. This experience of death had a deep 
influence on mother. 

After settling on the island, I saw the deer, wolves, and 
fox that had runways across our farm. Sometimes a bear was 
seen. We had to build tight pig pens for the little pigs to 
keep the fox from carrying them off. 

We did our farming with oxen. After a time we bought a 
horse. Mother would ride this horse and carry baskets of eggs 
and butter to Clunette to get groceries. Often we walked and 
carried our produce to market. 

She always knit wool stockings and sacks for her family. 
They would take the wool to the carding mills and have it 
carded. Then, she and we older girls would spin it into yarn. 
Father was a cobbler and made our shoes. We had fun on the 

- 17 

marsh ice fiei<i3 '.-i th our homemade sLed. 

There were no schools near enough for us older children to 
attend and our book learning was very limited. 

Later a school house was built at Hastings where the 
younger ones attended. 

Mrs. Rumfelt passed to her reward about 1936 in the home 
where I now live. She left a better world than she found. 

- 18 - 



(Fourth in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

The present little red brick school house was built about 
1896. The bricks were made of clay taken from a pit one half 
mile west of Hastings. 

The pit was owned by James Hollar. He burned the brick in 
his kiln and delivered them to the site. Catfish were taken 
from this pit until it was filled in later years. 

A storm blew down the north gable end while it was under 

The old frame school house, which was about half the size 
of the present school house, was located to the west of it. It 
was moved across the road from the present one and used as a 
dwelling for a family who ran a blacksmith shop. Later it was 
torn down and some lumber used in the present house on the 

Old Picture 
Mrs. Henry Biller has a picture of the 48 pupils of 

19 - 

Hastings school, taken in 1902 when Sam Weldy was teacher. 
Harvey Hartsough and Tom Blough had four years each preceding 

A partial list of those pictured are Mace Hollar, Belle 
(Haney) Hollar, Henry Biller, Daisy (Tusing) Biller, William 
Tusing, Dora (Oster) Tusing, Walter Swartz lander , Arvilla 
(Jensen) Swartzlander , John, Clarence, Loren, Enos, Fremont and 
Irvin Hollar, Flossie (Poe) Irvine, Trella Rumfelt, Roy, 
Herbert and Arthur Tusing, Dora (Tusing) Leazenby, Lloyd Haney, 
Jesse Biller, Bessie (Biller) Davis, Bertha (Biller) 
Cunningham, Otho Oster, Grace (Oster) Barnhart, Glenice (Oster) 
Wagner, Tom Roberts, Delia (Roberts) Beach, Pearl (Roberts) 
Hepler, Edgar Swartzlander, Cora (Swartzlander) Rohrer and 
Amanda (Jensen) Dick. 

School would start about September 15 and leave out about 
March 15 to April 1. 

The school laws of attendance were none too strict. 
Hookey was common, and permits to work at home for a week or 
two could be obtained. These conditions and others denied 
regular attendance and some of the over age pupils were as 
large as the teacher - - many their first term. 

- 20 

When hiring a teacher, the trustee generally referred to 
the school as tough and what to expect - - maybe a "lickin." 
At least one pupil and teacher tangled, scattering books over 
the floor and knocking tops off the desk with kids scared, some 
"bawling," the melee finally ended in a "draw." Some of the 
older boys always had their strategy outlined for such an 
occasion ! 

The boys' cloakroom was entered by the right door and the 
girls' on the left. Several shelves were present in each for 
the dinner pails. Your shelf and also clothes hanger were 
determined by your size. 

Nails soon replaced the broken coat hangers and a fallen 
cap was tossed in the corner. 

Scaling these shelves you had a reserved seat for any 

Between these cloak rooms was the teacher's desk. It also 
controlled the use of the old faithful pump and sink. 

The seats faced south until some light expert said over 
the shoulder lighting was better and they were reversed. 
Teacher's desk was put on the north end as well as the black 
boards . 

- 21 

'Recitation' Bench 

I nearly forgot to say the "recitation" bench was changed 
also. When teacher called for a certain class, a hop or two by 
the quickest boys nailed down the end positions. 

Going to the dictionary, writing your lesson on the 
blackboard, getting your pencil sharpened, or making a trip 
outside to get some fresh air kept your joints from getting too 
stiff from sitting. 

When a boy was one hundred per cent sure of the answer to 
teacher's question, he would snap his fingers (two ways) and 
reach halfway to teacher to beat his classmates to the draw. 

The first day of school saw Junior with a new light dinner 
pail, book satchel, a two inch thick tablet (rough as toilet 
paper), a penny pencil and a reader, start for school. He was 
told how long pencil and paper had to last. 

A little flare up on the way home from school and the 
dinner pail on top of the kid's head ruined its usefulness. 
Then, it was a gallon Karo syrup pail which would take lots of 
banging and still get the lid off with a nail. 

I nearly forgot to mention that expert handwriting in 
those copybooks as teacher pushed our hands to make an 

imitation. I never got being anywhere near perfect in writing 
but I soon learned to "copy" and had company. 

Morning Exercises 

Every day we had morning exercises. Monday was Bible 
verses, most of the pupils had "Jesus Wept" memorized before 
the term was over. Some second grader would pick out an Old 
Testament verse with a large number of jaw breaking names and 
teacher would help the little fellow thru. 

We'd sing favorites on Tuesday such as "Old Black Joe," 
"Dixie Land," Carry me Back to Old Virginia," and maybe ending 
by "Tentin Tonight." And when we'd come to "Many are the 
Hearts that are I'/eary Tonight, Waiting for the War to Cease" - 
a lump of patriotism sorta got in your throat. 

Then the stories of Jacob Swartzlander and his hair 
raising stories of his Civil War soldiering would appear. That 
long flowing white beard was the sign of travel and adventure. 

Story telling, jokes and riddles took their place in 
exercises too. 

One morning the new teacher said we'd take calistenics. 
That floored us! We'd always been taught to watch out for big 


words and fine print. Also, anything with a bad smell such as 
asafetida tied around your neck to soothe your nerves or bad 
tasting medicine such as quinine or castor oil would help you. 

She said that was physical exercise. Now most of us could 
chin ourselves or "skin a cat" quite a few times but that would 
be embarrassing for teacher to show us and besides, where was' 
the bar? She said we had lots of muscles we'd never used. 

The first bell had rung and we ran most of the one and a 
quarter mile to school and had just gotten our second breath. 
Stooping, arms up, down, 1-2-3-4, was fun but we never felt 
those unused muscles come into action. 

In those days kids made their fun -- couldn't buy it -- no 
money. At recess we played dare base, blackman, tin can, 
zippy, shinny, duch-on-rock, Andy over, baseball and later 
basketball. One boy went home with a broken collar bone -- the 
result of whip crack. 

When school left out at Thanksgiving, teacher generally 
had testimony meeting to find out what they were grateful for - 
- to tell the truth -- vacation! 

One boy said, "turkey." He had never tasted turkey in his 
life. Isn't that wonderful to be thankful that others can have 
things you can't afford? 


At Christmas a sack of "hardtack" candy was appreciated 
because of its lasting qualities. Teacher must have gotten a 
five dollar raise per month as he scattered a bag of peanuts 
over the room. I don't know if he was demonstrating Darwin's 
survival of the fittest, or showing us how the anti-poverty 
program was going to work. 

The last day of school, maybe a program, ciphering, a ball 
game with kids playing dads and a big dinner -- boy wasn't it 
good! That big round cake with white frosting and covered with 
red hots was out of this world. 

A book for the head marks in spelling, maybe a few "roll 
of honor", a souvenir of teacher's picture and pupils' names 
and finally report cards and school was out. 

Ue wished teacher would be back next year but slie had her 
"practice" teaching and could leave janitor service, 30 to 40 
classes a day for better pay, so we walked slowly home, happy 
to have known such a wonderful teacher. 

The Furnace 
Probably the most memorable day was the one when several 
boys and myself arrived at school about seven o'clock. The 
boys were "fiddlin" with the furnace and filled the school room 


with smoke that you could "cut with a knife." This v\?as not 
unusual as the burning of Indiana coal made us smoke eaters. 
We sizzled on one side and froze on the other. 

When the teacher asked if I had been in the basement I 
said "nope" and felt relieved for I had not monkeyed with the 

As school left out my name and Allen Dierks and Roy Thaden 
were called to stay after school. As the other children left 
the room and went home I had a funny feeling. 

The teacher started to sweep and when they were down the 
road a ways he stopped and went outside. 

What should I do? 

Judgement night was here. Why hadn't I hid behind the 
fifth amendment this morning? I was too small to put up a 
fight. There was no shingle to put in my pants and no extra 
overalls to put on. 

I could tell him my dad would be up in the morning, but if 
you get a licking in school you get another one at home, 
squashed that. I could run home, but I had tried that when a 
stone fell from my hand and broke a window light and as I ran 
down the lane, I heard a voice say, "You'll be home for 
supper." I was! 

- 26 - 

I could play deathly sick -- I did feel sick, honest. 

I was born 50 years too soon. If Bible reading had been 
banned I would have been innocent -- because I didn't know 

Again you shouldn't punish a child while angry. That 
morning our old back cow stuck her foot in my pail of milk and 
the next second saw the bucket hit the barn siding. I just 
whispered in old Bosse's ear, "You're not in good humor this 
morning and I'm not either. Next week when we're both 'sittin 
on top of the world' we'll finish this." And she didn't 
object. Maybe teacher had heard of this new approach. 

I had heard a political office seeker say, "it's a poor 
hide that can't take one tanning." After his defeat I found he 
had a "poor" hide. Did I have a good hide? 

The quietness was killing! 

As teacher came through the cloakroom with a hickory 
sprout (that had been growing several years) I was relieved. 

He said, "You lied to me this morning" and applied that 
hickory oil with rhythm fit to kill while I performed the 
"twist" without practice. After a few minutes of this tornado, 
he stopped abruptly and said, "You may go now" and I took off 
for home. I felt I could not thank him from the bottom (of my 
heart) . 


In all seriousness -- 40 odd years later I met and thanked 
him for this lesson in life, and to this day have no love for 
untruthfulness. His reply was, "Surely you're not the 
clubfooted, pigeontoed third-grader I taught back in Hastings 

My heart goes out to these fine teachers who labored with 
low wages to raise knowledge and character to us who now travel 
this wonderful community. 

See you next week -- in church. 



By Kenneth Haney 

(Fifth in a Series) 

One of the first churches was located to the right at the 
entrance to Island cemetery. The building was used as a church 
and as a school. It burned down and was never rebuilt. 

The Primitive Baptist church was built before the turn of 
the century. The building (still standing) was last used for 
worship in the 1940's. Most of the people who worshipped here 
came originally from Virginia. Among the prominent families 
were the Prices, Tusings, Lathrops, Silveus, Esteps, McGowns, 
Rymans, Collins, and Hollars. 

Services were held Saturday and Sunday about every two 
weeks. Elders Pittman and Ford are revered among others for 
their labors for the Lord. 

Every year the people of this denomination would have a 
Baptist Association or convention. It was held in the woods in 
front of Russel Hollar's house and later in his woods. The 
faithful people would come from Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana in 
buggies for a spiritual retreat. 

Although the church was closed from dwindling numbers 
these Christian people have left a great heritage to us. 

29 - 

Enos [lollar says he has attended the Hollar reunion in 
Virginia when the attendance varied from 200 to 500 people -- 
about like a fair. Now attendance is about like all family 
reunions. It seems like the younger group is not interested in 
family gatherings anymore. Why? 

Island Chapel 

The Island Chapel church was built about 1875. Prominent 
families represented were the Dausmans, Pinkertons, Billers, 
Foxes, Geigers, Brunings, Haneys, and Swart zlanders . 

One of the early ministers was the dynamic and eloquent 
"Little Wes" Pinkerton. He lived in the "Pinkerton Settlement" 
on the eastern end of the island. 

Another minister, Rev. Rarry, held a revival service about 
1900 when 40 people were converted. 

Circuit riding preachers filled the pulpit at irregular 
times. These early preachers had a zeal for the Lord that 
marshes, mud, bad weather and hardship could not stop. 

The expression "You can't pull yourself up by your own 
boot straps" was a common expression in sermons. 

The story goes that a little boy got a new pair of red 
rubber boots, which he was very proud of. Everybody had a pair 
of rubber boots and they either had a strap or loop to pull 


them on. This urchin soon went to the back of his father s 
farm to test them in the water. 

He soon bogged down in the mire. He tried to pull his 
foot and one boot out and the other went deeper. As the water 
ran into the top of his boots he yelled for help. His father 
finally came and threw him a rope to catch hold of, but, he 
couldn't hold the rope and the boot straps at the same time. 
As he struggled he went deeper. Finally he let go of his 
boots, grabbed the rope and was pulled out of his boots to 
safety -- and then the pastor would say that the Gospel was 
just that simple. 

The churchgoer would unload his family at the uncovered 
platform and then tie his horse at the hitching rack and 
blanket it, if it was winter, maybe using the horsehide robe 
used to keep warm in the buggy. 

The porch had large cracks to let the dirt fall through 
and was the main entrance. The pulpit was on the east end of 
the church. Hard high backed seats were on either side with 
the men and boys on one side and the women and girls on the 
other . 

Stoves furnished the heat and coal oil the light, with 
gas, Delco and REMC coming in that order. 

One Sunday school report for January of 1900 says there 

- 31 - 

were a total of 40 males and females present and the collection 
was 37 cents. 

Many of us can remember when David Dausman gave us a penny 
to put in the primary class Sunday school collection when we 
didn ' t have one. 

A Sunday school convention would be held about every year 
in the George Roberts woods. 

Every year the Evangelical denomination would hold camp 
meeting at Conkling Hill (Oakwood Park) for revival services. 
Just as the Baptist came from far and near so would these 
veterans of the Cross put forth a great effort to get to these 
services . 

Oscar Haney remembers when two double buggy loads of 
people from Argos stopped one Sunday morning to water their 
horses at their home on the way to the "Hill." 

These folks would pitch their tents and stay several days. 
In the big revival tents with sawdust isles many found a 
Christian experience. The slang expression "hitting the 
sawdust trail" was something to be proud of. At that time 
there was an entrance charge to the park. 



By Kenneth Haney 

(Sixth in a Series) 

The church and the "gravy" (grave yard) have always been 
inseparable. As a child I couldn't quite get the connection 
between "gravy" and a cemetery. You seldom lieard the word 
cemetery in those days. 

Because of the water level, the Island grave yard was 
located where it is. 

C.R. Brittsan 

Henry Heightsmith, a man with a long beard, was the first 
undertaker in Milford. These beards were a fad or custom from 
Civil War times. 

In 1904 Mr. Keltner and Mr. Brittsan came to Milford from 
Ohio and took over the undertaking business from Mr. 
Heightsmith who moved to Michigan. 

They also opened a furniture store in the Opera House 
block (southwest corner of Main and Emeline Streets). Because 
of ill health, Mr. Keltner sold out to Mr. Brittsan two years 
later. I give this information because Mr. Brittsan buried the 

- 33 - 
majority of the Islanders in his time - - as well as those in 
the Milford vicinity. 

The pinto driving horse team or those beautiful black 
drivers owned by Jap Clem, the livery man, was a familiar 
sight. Mr. Clem's stables were near the back of the Myers Ford 
Agency. As Mr. Brittsan sat in the open beside his driver 
pulling the small black hearse, you were reminded of an early 
English coachman's picture. Many times Rev. W.E. Groves would 
accompany and preach the funeral sermon. 


Why are people embalmed? Why are people buried in vaults? 
Why did people sit up at night to watch the dead? These are 
questions that puzzled me. 

Using information from Mervin and Wade Mishler I will try 
and pass some information along. 

I have been told people were found turned over when 
disinterred and some heard a tapping after they were buried and 
the corpse came alive -- so embalming made them sure dead or 

Now I'm told there is no state law requiring embalming; 
But it is up to the county health officers. There is a law 
requiring burial within so many hours if not embalmed. So, it 
seems the reason for embalming is for preservation of the body 

- 34 - 
and to kill the disease germs (especially the contagious ones). 
The law taking embalming from the home and to a licensed parlor 
was passed about 1940. 

"Dust thou art and to dust thou shalt return" says the 
Scriptures. With this in mind it looks foolish to put in 
vaults . 

The grave was dug by neighbors or friends and the rough 
box consisting of inch or two inch oak was placed in the 

After the pallbearers lowered the coffin (casket) into the 
box by leather straps, the top was covered with short boards. 
\7hile the grave was being closed by the pallbearers, hymns were 

Many times, water was trickling in the grave at the time 
of burial. Sometimes ground hogs would bring up bones of the 
dead. There was a large mound of dirt at burial time and when 
the boxes and caskets decayed there was a depression. With the 
discovery of cement we have the answer. The result is our 
level, beautiful cemeteries. 

Charles Sparklin was the first maker of vaults in the 
Milford community. His business was located on the W.R. Deeter 
farm - - where gravel was available. 

The practice of sitting with the dead was a European 
custom. I am told it was to watch so rats, cats, mice, and 

- 35 - 

other animals would not harm the body. Sometimes cold water, 
ice, etc. would be used for preservation during the night. 
Superstition of the dead was another reason. When embalming in 
a licensed place came into being the night "vigil" disappeared 
and the funeral home came into being. 

When death came into the community the church bell would 
be tolled (clapper hit on one side of bell) and folks would 
inquire who had departed. On the day of the funeral the bell 
would toll from the time the funeral train came into sight 
until the service started. 

Pennies (they were larger than the ones today) were placed 
on the deceased eye lids to keep them closed. This was done 
soon after death. This is where the expression used to 
describe a dishonest man came into use - - "He'd steal the 
pennies from a dead man's eyes." 

Mo^t. of the women dressed in black and wore veils. The 
obituary was always read in the services because it never came 
in the paper until the next week and I believe you then had to 
pay for its insertion. The names of the pallbearers were 
generally added. The epitaph was common on tombstones. 

Bad Luck 

It was bad luck to drive back over the same road on the 

- 35 - 

way to the cemetery so this was avoided. It was a bad sign to 
rain in the grave - - another one in the family would soon die. 
"A green Christmas and a white Easter makes fat grave yards" 
was a fearful saying. Don't be too critical! This 
unseasonable weather caused colds, flu, etc. and with no 
medical know how the death rate was high. 

As I said before the Island cemetery with no income but 
donations was covered with briars, weeds, etc. which left it in 
a deplorable condition until its care and that of the Brumbaugh 
cemetery were paid by public taxation. It's a free public 
burying place. 

Bert Irvine saw the condition of Island cemetery as he 
looked over the fence from his farm and determined to do 
something about is in the 1950's. 

Enlisting the help of relatives of the deceased, he put 
his bulldozer to work to push out the brush and trees from the 
back part and leveled it off so it could be mowed. 

John Kaiser gave a strip of ground so the drive way could 
be widened, graded, drained and graveled, so it's a public 
road . 

A well was driven, a gravel drive around the cemetery made 
and the drives were all enclosed with a new fence. This was 
done by donated money and labor. A cemetery "fit for a king to 

- 37 

be buried in." "Those who honor the dead will respect the 
living. " 

Among those who helped in this worthy project were Enos, 
Ernest, Paul, and Russel Hollar, Henry and Royce Biller, Rudy 
and Otto Sierk, Lew Davis, Frank Charlton, Glen Pinkerton, 
Lawrence Dierks, and myself. 

Tragedies on the Island 

We have had our share of sorrows, too. My great- 
grandmother was killed by a sheep buck as she crossed the hill 
one half mile south of Gerald Charlton's farm. Gerald McDonald 
was gored by a bull about 1935 and Fred Wuthrich, Sr., met the 
same fate in 1921. Truly "You can't trust a bull any farther 
than can throw him by his tail." Mr. Wuthrich had purchased 
this white faced bull as a calf from Mervin Mishler about two 
years before. 

Arthur Hall was buried beneath a load of tile in the 
bottom of the Neff ditch when a temporary bridge gave way in 
1915. Berniece Spicher was burned to death. Billie Moore and 
several horses were killed by lightning just south of the old 
Milton Berger gravel pit about 1906. Aaron Slabaugh met death 
when run over by a wagon in front of the Hastings store about 


Noah Estep was run over by a car in Ohio, and Mrs. Daniel 
Haney's life was snuffed out by a car on a South Bend street. 
A car accident caused the untimely death of Darell Kaiser on 
the Community Center road. 

Farm tractor accidents took the life of William Sierk in 
1946 and Glenn Baker recently. 

Truly as we lay our friends and loved ones tenderly away, 
we look for a city whose maker and ruler is God. 
The Gravel Pit 

In regard to W.R. Deeter gravel pit now the Zimmerman pit, 
I recall when this hill reminded you of a Benton Harbor fruit 
orchard. After we had tied our horses across the road from 
what is now Dr. Rheinheimer ' s residence we started to pick 
those luscious red cherries from the loaded trees. 

From our perch in the trees you could see the "mud" train 
loaded with its precious cargo and Tom Thumb engine wind its 
way toward the cement factory in Syracuse. It's load of marl 
had been dredged from the bottom of Waubee Lake. 

Years later when I remember that "toot" "toot" of the 
choo! choo! as it crossed the country roads my conscience sort 
of pricked me. What he was trying to tell me was he was 
bringing me a better life. With the gravel under me and the 


cement he helped to make, would come concrete roads, pavements, 
sidewalks, foundations, vaults, huge silos, and houses. Yes, 
he would pull our feet from the mud and miry clay and set us 
free. He would get rid of the rats by destroying board floors 
and breeding places. Truly, I should have saluted my choo! 
choo! train as he glided by. Thanks little engine for your 
help in making the Orn road concrete! 

Years later, about 1919, a railroad hauled gravel from the 
gravel pit to a washing plant near the outlet, to Waubee Lake. 
The present beautiful beach and park came from the washed sand. 
Several acres of lake were filled up, getting rid of the old 
'swimmin' hole. Where for years the young men of the community 
had enjoyed swimming in their birthday clothes. 



(Ninth in a Series) 
By Kenneth Haney 

This is a ticklish as well as a loveable subject and I 
hesitate to try and write on my experience in automobile days. 
Therefore, I shall rely on those who were successful 
competitors for the lady's hand in the horse and buggy days. 

I am reminded of some tourists who stopped at an Indian 
Reservation at noon and asked for the singing of "The Indian's 
Evening Love Song" and were refused. The Indian said it wasn't 
evening yet. So I am told it was necessary to have ideal 
conditions for the pursuit of a mate. 

Most of the young men worked on the home farm or by the 
"month" for a neighbor, getting his room and board "throwed 
in." If he had a "driver" it was cared for also. 

He was allowed to wash the buggy on Saturday afternoon and 
put some leather split washers inside the spindle and grease 
with lard or later on with "Black Beauty" or some other brand 
of axle grease. Then with the top folded down and with the 
blanket or robe cleaned he was ready for town. 

41 - 

The picture of their beautiful horse and buggy was the 
envy of many a young man. Notice the martingales, the high 
reining of the horse's head, the buggy whip, and I believe an 
"open" bridle as well as the road conditions. 
The Ardent Suitor 

With all the wiles of an ardent suitor the young man would 
try and persuade his intended companion to ride with him to her 
home. If in town he had to tell ma and pa she was going with 

Sometimes he would single her out from a group walking 
home from church or a party. With the gallantry of a knight he 
would alight from his buggy after turning his horse to the 
right. With his lines (reins) in his left hand he would assist 
his girl with his gentle right arm to the buggy seat. Then, if 
the distance was short he would let the horse "poke" along or 
drove around the square to "kill" time. 

There was no need for introduction because everyone v^/as 
acquainted with each other. Most men got their bride within a 
few miles of their homes. So as in all small communities in 
those days everybody was related. With the advent of high 
school and college this has all changed. 

Now, with more cordial relations established, regular 
trips to town, parties, and church became more frequent. With 


birds singing in the branches above, bees humming, crickets 
chirping, a little red "piney" squirrel running along the rail 
fence, maybe a few small rabbits calmly sitting by the 
roadside, how could hearts beat otherwise but in unison. 

With the lines wrapped around the dashboard, even the 
horse sensed the trust that was beginning to emerge in his 
youthful passengers. That one horse with horse sense was safer 
without a driver thaa 300 under the hood with one hand and 
divided attention! 

Every school play was not complete without uncle Josh or 
some bashful boy trying to "pop" the question. His girl friend 
would keep "prodding" him for the invitation. 


At one time there were many motorcycles in Hastings. 
There was the "Indian" all painted red; Henderson; and then 
those twin cylinder Excelsiors, the speediest of anything on 
the road. Horses never got used to motorcycles. 

Among those having motorcycles that I "faintly" recall 
were Roy Tusing, Roy Teeple, Austin (Jack) McKibbin, Roy 
Thaden, Chester Tusing, Jesse Biller, Leland Rohrer, and Henry 
and Arthur Biller. 

This Harley-Davidson , single cylinder, flat belt driven, 
was used part-time by "Bill" Biller to woo Ella Waldsberger. 


This one with no lights had to be pushed to get it stared and 
then with a jump like getting on a galloping horse you landed 
astride the seat. 

One night on the way home from Henry Dierk's he collided 
head on with a junk man. He narrowly missed the shaft, but 
tore the harness from the horse and it took off. As he lay 
"badly hurt" by the roadside, the excited peddler bent over him 
saying "are you deadt?" Are you deadt?" 

Reminds me of a doctor telling me he was called out to a 
farm home where a small boy was killed when a horse kicked him. 
As the sad family quietly carried the lifeless precious bundle 
to the house the mother began to wail and say, "And just think, 
Johnny died without his supper." 

One band concert night someone was trying to start a balky 
cycle just south of the band stand. Someone lit a match and 
the cycle caught fire. The Hastings fire department was soon 
put into action. 

There were about a dozen kids around the machine and 
someone yelled "throw dirt" and with about two inches of dust 
that fire was "snuffed" out "pronto" and most of the kids 
looked like they had been on fire too as they missed the fire 
target . 

Getting Courage 

After convincing his girl friend he \»/as the only man in 
the world for her and getting courage to ask her parents' 
consent, they would make a flying trip to the justice of the 
peace or a minister. 

Not too many "pomp" weddings, as many times their wages 
were collected by the parents for a girl to 18 and a boy to 21. 
They had little to start with. 

The ceremony was much the same as today except I believe 
three things are now deleted. Do you promise to obey your 
husband? Do you take your husband for better or for worse? Is 
there anyone here who objects to this marriage, if not let him 
forever keep his peace? If these are not correct I welcome 

The Chivaree 

After the marriage came the belling or chivaree, when all 
the young people came at night with shotguns, buzz saws, dinner 
bells, dishpans, washtubs, and what have you noisemakers. 

After the shooting of guns, yelling and all the noise you 
could make for 15 to 30 minutes the happy couple was expected 
to invite you into the house and as you passed and 
congratulated them your name was written down and you were 
eligible for a cigar or candy treat at the Hastings Store. Oh! 


as a kid I loved belling. 

Sometimes the house was "guarded" to see that the 
"honeymooners" didn't escape. 

Johnny Biller tells me several boys were delegated to 
watch the Jacob Fox residence to see that Mr. and Mrs. Don Fox 
didn't "fly the coop" when they got married. 

The boys hatched up a trick that as one boy, the victim A, 
came around the corner of the house he would yell "There goes 
Foxy." With boy B several rods ahead they took up Enos 
Hollar's lane. B was caught by A several blocks away and when 
A discovered the joke on him, he was unhappy and angry for 
awhile. How would you have reacted? 

Golden Anniversaries 

I have attended quite a few golden wedding anniversaries 
of those we belled. As I have seen these wonderful pairs brave 
hard work, disease, death, privation, and the storms of life to 
bring up loving, obedient children and true to their wedding 
vows, I can only wish them many more years of such fruitful 
life. Yes, they married for "keeps." 

In discussing marriage one girl said, "If we can't get 
along we can separate." Needless to say she was "dropped like 
a hot potato." 


I am told that better food, the age of maturity comes 
several years earlier in youth physically. How about judgment 
and experience? When I see divorces involving two to 15 
children in the paper surely something is wrong. Would a 
marriage counselor or semi-official judge investigation more 
thoroughly help? 

Will there be no divorce proceeding by 1985 as the Supreme 
Court will rule that takes away Civil Rights and all will 
become common Law marriages? 

A judge said there is no 100 per cent divorce on one 
party's part; it may be 10-90, 20-80, 30-70, 40-60, or 50-50, 
but not 100 per cent. I might add that's in any area of 
conflict or opinion. Would you agree? It is food for thought! 
We might sing that old negro spiritual, "It's me, It's Me O' 
Lord, Standing in the Need of Prayer." 

(10th in a Series) 
By Kenneth Haney 
As I write I meditate as I work. Many poetry gems come to 
memory, some being exact wording and others the gist of what 
the poet implies. One of these is "I think I shall never see 
anything as lovely as a tree" - - Joyce Kilmer. This is the 

- 47 

pleasure in writing this time. 

As I said before trees made the early settlers' lives 
difficult but they were also a blessing. The Coppes Brothers 
and Mutschler woodworking factories used a large amount of logs 
from the Island. The Lentz saw mill also purchased many. 

Many of these four feet to six feet "across the stump" 
(diameter) virgin trees were growing before the Revolutionary 
War. When these ripe trees were cleared, mushrooms popped up 
by the wash tubs full. The hollow logs were split into halves 
and boards nailed across the end made a watering trough or a 
milk trough where cold water kept the cream, milk and butter 
cool. Sometimes the butter, etc., were put in the well pit. 

The Hud Boat 

Another essential "tool" made from timber was the "mud" 
boat. It consisted of two flat runners "pegged" or bolted 
together. It slid well on mud, ice, or snow, but, was hard to 
control it from stopping or sliding side wise. It was 
transportation for the family, could be used for hauling 
manure, buzz poles, etc. 

After getting these limbs of trees together the neighbors 
would help to cut in firewood lengths. These pole piles and 
holes in the trees and ditch planks were the chief places of 
protection for rabbits. I nearly forgot the fodder or corn 

48 - 

shocks. Rabbits learned to climb trees then, too. Where can 
he go for protection today? 

Rail Splitting 

When I think of A. Lincoln with his wooden maul or sledge 
hammer driving wedges to split logs for rails or fence posts, I 
think of the enormous amount of energy it took - - more than a 
cup of coffee and a doughnut for breakfast. Hewing out barn 
timbers was in the same class. 

Then, gathering hickory, beech, walnuts, butternuts and 
hazel nuts in the fall was fun. Cracking nuts by the box stove 
on a cold winter evening and picking out the "goodies" 
(kernels) shortened the evening. I would give several 
butternuts to anyone wishing to start trees this fall as I have 
a small tree in front of my barn. 

Sometimes a swarm of bees would fly over while they were 
plowing corn or making hay. By throwing dirt or pounding on 
tin or metal you could get them to lite on a bush and then 
transferred to a hive to provide a table spread. 

Many times you would be lucky to find a "bee tree," a hive 
of bees in a hollow tree. After frost time man came along and 
took all their summer work and killed the bees. There was a 
saying a hive of bees in Nay was worth a ton of hay, if gotten 
in June a silver spoon, but one gotten in July wasn't worth a 

49 - 


In Proverbs 6-6 we read "Go to the ant thou sluggard; 
consider her ways and be wise." With this thought in mind, 
except we change the word "ant" to "bee," I would like to 
introduce you to my friend Otto Beer. 

First I want to say he doesn't need that. What I really 
want to say is that here amongst us dwells a high authority on 
bees. I listened a t tentatively to the "Lives of Honey Bees" at 
our Sunday school class party several years ago as Mr. Beer 
presented the subject. 

Any school class, club or party that has never heard Mr. 
Beer surely is missing a rare opportunity on Christian living, 
good citizenship, integrity, industry and frugality as the bee 
teaches us a lesson. 

While talking about natural sweets, lots of maple and 
sugar water was boiled down to make maple syrup in those early 
days . 

Saw Mills 

While talking to Dr. Owen Lentz. he stated his father, Ed 
Lentz, and family moved from the Darsh marsh at the corner of 
road 1200 N and 500 W to Milford about 1910. He went into 
partnership with his father, Albert Lentz, who owned a sawmill 
just across the street and to the south of the Lentz Coal 

- 50 

Company. This sawmill, I believe, burned tv;ice. 

Joe Griffith and Phil Caris were their teamsters, Isaac 
Mitchell and Tim Dygert were veteran log haulers from the 
Island. Monger's of Elkhart and Griffith were saw mill 
operators later in Milford. 

Around Hastings William Tusing, Ira Collins, and Enos 
Hollar operated mills for many years. Sherman Collins had been 
and is still sawing at his home site. 

Harold, son of William Tusing, has, along with his sons, 
operated the Dutchtown sawmill for many years. 

On a cold winter morning while walking to school you would 
see a log hauler skidding logs to the roadside to be loaded on 
his wagon log bunks or bobsleds if the ground was covered with 
snow. Rack in the woods you might hear the crash of a giant 
oak as it toppled to the ground. After placing the reins 
(lines) on the horses' hames the five command words - - gee, 
haw, gidap, back, and whoa - would direct that faithful team 
like trained circus horses while the driver was busy with the 
chains and logs. Most of these dumb animals were treated 
kindly by their masters. Each driver knew the limit of his 
team's pulling power and endurance. One man with a large team 
wanted everyone else to know he had the best pullers. 


Now everyone should be proud of his work, but, it can be 
overdone. One spring day this man who had never been stuck (so 
he said) started for Nappanee with a load of logs. One log or 
one too large was the straw that broke the camel's back. He 
hadn't gone too many miles when the wagon dropped to the axles 
and with might or main she couldn't be gotten out. Along came 
neighbor X with a smaller team and a load fitted to the thawed- 
out road. 

"Are you stuck?" he asked. 

"Nope, just unable to move it," was the reply. 

"I'll hook on in front and see what we can do." 

The large load was soon pulled to solid ground and Mr. X 
thanked him for his help. Then the man said, "If it hadn't 
been for my big team, we'd never pulled it out." How right he 
was ! 

Classified Forests 

When I was a boy from 30 to 40 per cent of the Island was 
covered with forests and now we nearly cut the zero off. 

I have heard it said many times, "My woods will last me," 
with no thought for future generations. I have always loved 
woods so I have had mine "classified." To do this all 
livestock is fenced out, and the forest is "farmed" or 


undesirable trees, vines etc., are cut.. Selected trees are cut 
as they mature. 

There is a two cent an acre tax. A good "farmed" woods 
will produce 300 board feet of lumber a year or about $14 
yearly income per acre. 

A few more classified forests and less bulldozing would 
help this farm surplus some and bring pleasure to future 
generations . 

I love to take Ronnie and Gary Cotton, my grandsons from 
Pierceton, to my woods. Yes, there on that beech tree is the 
notch to show their height in 1961, 1963, and 1964. 

Oscar Haney and 1 went "prospecting" (rambling) in my 
woods one Sunday afternoon in May. After going part way 
through we sat down on a fallen tree. 

As that soft southern wind rustled the tree leaves and 
with birds flitting and singing all over the place, our little 
dog scared a bunny from the underbrush. With this peaceful 
scene of nature Mr. Haney mused, "If heaven is as nice as this 
I'll be satisfied." 

I sometimes wonder if people in general aren't too much 
inclined to have silver and gold to pave the streets with over 
there, rather than enjoying much of God's beauty here. 

- 53 - 


(Eighth in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

The Hastings band was formed in the early teens and was 
the life of the community for about a decade. 

Under the efficient direction of Ziler Grove many happy 
day and evening concerts were enjoyed. A platform was erected 
in front of the store with single gas lights hung at the 
corners of the stand. Folks from all parts of the Island 
gathered on Wednesday evenings to enjoy the music and do their 
trading . 

The first practicing was done above the store. Later the 
building to the south of the store, occupied formerly by Claude 
\7eimer's barbershop, was moved to the east side of Enos 
Hollar's lane and used until the band was discontinued. It was 
put as near the road as possible to take advantage of the 
precious gravel. 

The band sponsored the Hastings Big Days which included a 
ball game (I'll tell about this later), sack races, bicycle 
races (both short distances and around the two and a half mile 
Hastings square), pie and vv'atermelon eating contests (with your 
hands tied behind you back), nail driving, foot racing, etc. I 

54 - 

can't remember any grease pole climbing or catching the greased 

There were horse races (local horses) from the church to 
the store. Their "sulky" was made from the front axel and 
wheels of a buggy. Lew Davis, John Hollar, John Brock, Alex 
Hollar, and Charlie "Sigh" Hollar were some top contenders. 

There was also an eating stand to help make money to pay 
for prizes along with homemade ice cream socials occasionally. 

Allen Dierks recalls when the above picture was taken, 
Orville Yeager was driving his Model T nearby. A "fractious" 
horse became unruly and in the excitement Mr. Yeager pinned 
Allen's father, Henry, against the bandstand near the school 
house and injured him severely. 

Boys were Boys 
Boys were boys then, too! One night the rear Ziler 
Grove's "Flivver" was lifted up and blocks put under the axel. 

In those days when you came out of a building it was 
always dark (no artificial light unless you had a kerosene 
lantern sometimes called a "Smu tsiagger . " ) Mr. Grove came out 
to his car, "twisted her tail", and got in. He put it in low, 
pulled down the gas and with a "roar" he just sat there with 
the kids standing at a distance viewing the spectacle. 

55 - 

Mr. Grove, a quite friendly man, took it good naturedly. 
He was a man you couldn't help but admire. 
Clay Pigeon Shooting 

In the fall there was the clay pigeon shooting or trap 
shooting to raise money. The Tusing, Biller and Hollar boys 
were good at this target practice. 

When a rabbit took off as they went out hunting it didn't 
have much of a chance. When rabbits were sold a little profit 
could be realized. 

With me, and I had lots of company, the ammunition cost 
too much for sales, unless the game just died from fright. 

When I think of these band boys with their diligent 
practice and their efforts to bring entertainment to an 
otherv'/ise drab atmosphere, surely they were a wonderful booster 
to our early community. 

When I think of the present band opportunities which we 
support by public taxation and which we were deprived of, how 
grateful this generation would be for its opportunity, with 
Milford High School only five miles away. 

I was told if you furnish your clothes, your books and 
your way, you can go. Many of you folks could say the same 
thing in this or other realms of your life. 

The dole never made good citizens. 


Earning your bread by the sweat of your brow or the poor 
ye shall have with you always will soon be out-moded by the 
anti-poverty crusade. 

The Fiall Team 

About 1903 Hastings had a baseball team that was tops. 
With Alex Hollar as pitcher and Charlie Geiger as catcher or 
Jack and Butch Kline as the battery, they weren't afraid of 
Nappanee, Milford, Gravelton, Foraker and others. 

"Coon" Earl Biller and "Sigh" Hollar were sometimes relief 
pitchers. Others on the team were Lew and Otto Davis, Enos and 
George Hollar, "Flick" Sam Biller and Claude Good. Henry 
Biller was water boy. 

Two prominent Oldtimers were Charlie and Vern Wysong, who 
played on the Nappanee or Gravelton team. 

The baseball diamond, which was a good one for that day, 
was located against and to the southeast of Einma Biller's 
woods . 

Many a hard hit ball had to be retrieved from the mud in 
the far outfield. You never could hit the ball out of the 
park, but there was a possibility of never finding the ball. 

Later on a second generation with indoor ball enjoyed the 
same kind of rivalry with surrounding communities and seldom 
were at the bottom of the "Totem" pole. 



(11th in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

When I think of wheat and oats threshing in the early days 
on the Island the word "precious" seems to stand out. In the 
fall, winter wheat was sown and if it survived the "Hooving" of 
the spring thawing you might get a 15 to 25 bushel average 

Fertilizer was unknown until that old standby 2-12-6 came 
into use. 

Oats were sown by hand which was the Bible times way or by 
a mechanical broadcaster and disked or harrowed in. In this 
virgin soil, or "new ground", oats made a fairly good yield. 

Harvest time and the McCormack or Deering binder cut and 
tied the bundles of grain and dropped them in piles to be 
shocked . 

A good job of shocking withstood the wind and rain very 
well, but, a poor job looked like a tornado had struck the 

There were few threshing machines at first and much grain 
had to be stacked or hauled into the barn to be threshed later 
in the season. 

58 - 

One of the First 

One of the first threshing owners around Hastings was Joe 
Estep, He was the son of Sam Estep, Hastings store owner, and 
the father of Cleo, Gale, and Gladys (Mrs. Ted Bauingar tner ) . 
Gale, a likeable young chap died soon after the family returned 
from Florida one spring. 

Mr. Estep owned the Robert Hollar farm before he moved to 
Milford. It seems to me he owned the threshing "rigs". 

He was one of the first owners of an automobile around 
Milford. Mrs. Haney recalls he took the cooks and children on 
their first auto ride after dinner one day. What a thrill! 

After Mr. Estep, John Kaiser threshed on the Milford- 
Hastings road and the South Jefferson Threshing Company took 
the territory from the Albert Krull farm northwest to the David 
Deisch (Richard Hollar) farm. It was a large shareholder 
company and sometimes threshing in a wet season wasn't 
completed until late August. A wet season sure kept a farmer 
on edge. 

Others who operated machines on the fringe were Frank 
Heiber, William and Jacob Hartter (Harter?) and Frank Heplers 
and his boys in the west end. Some of those who helped to 
operate these machines were William Murphy, Tom Sumpter, 
Clarence (Sox) Hollar, Butch and Jack Kline. 


A Typical Day 

On threshing day mother and father would be up at 4 a.m. 
Father milked the cows and got the horses harnessed while 
mother was baking pies and getting things ready for dinner. 
The neighbor women would come early to assist. 

There was wood or coal to be loaded on the mudboat, 
neighbors to be notified if they were to haul bundles, haul 
grain or pitch. There were cattle or hogs to be shut up and 
gates opened. 

If chicken wasn't on the menu there was a quick trip to 
Henry Erick or Dave Hill's butcher shop at Milford for beef. 
As you looked into those ice coolers filled with fresh meat in 
those hot days my how your mouth "watered" (saliva)!. Canned 
meat or salted pork wouldn't be used today for dinner! 

A threshing crew of four, eight bundle wagons, five 
pitchers, and three shovelers along with the cooks and children 
took a lot of beef, noodles, applesauce, tapioca, dessert, pie 
and cake, etc. Everyone tried to get to the first table 
although there was generally enough to eat. 

The crew had pulled the outfit from the neighbors farm 
last night after dark with two oil lanterns as lights. Old 
Coaly, as the steam engine was familiarly called, was fired up 
early and the whistle blowed to call all helpers to come. 

60 - 

Maybe a whistle from another machine saying "good morning" 
could be heard in the distance. There was a code of whistles 
for bundle wagons, grain wagons, water wagon, etc. 

One morning the whistle struck and blew for several hours. 
Blowing the whistle of a steam engine still tingles my spine! 

Old Coaly, loved to drink water, and leaking flues and the 
steam valve popping off were taboo with the water wagon boy. 
With water in ditch it wasn't too bad but to use water from the 
local farmer's water tank wasn't appreciated especially if the 
wind mill wasn't running. 

Some of the straw was put in the barn and how I envied any 
boy who could throw this bedding down for the cattle or horses. 

Many farmers made a pole shed and covered it with straw 
and around three sides for shelter. A good job of straw 
stacking was appreciated when bedding cattle and horses in the 
winter. Empty barns, useless in this automatic age, were 
valuable in those days and really appreciated. 

I, like other boys, carried water to the thirsty men for 
my dinner. Sometimes a generous farmer gave me a nickle or 
dime bonus. 

With a crockery jug, weighing as much as the water it 
held, you kept making the rounds of the stubble fields, 
barefoot regularly. 

61 - 

To drink from a jug from which a man with a big "cud of 
Tobacco" had just drunk was hard on your stomach. To have a 
man give the jug a flip of the jug to wash off the bacteria 
from mouth made your heart sink. But to havi some man say, 

"This water tastes like , did you get it out of the horse 

tank?" Made you feel like going home. 

As you sat at that dinner table loaded with good food 
those wonderful cooks had prepared, you forgot those unpleasant 
words on those hot days! 

Threshing lasted until after dark and then cows to milk 
and late to bed. Both mother and father would be all in but 
their "shoe strings." Supper as well as dinner was given to 
the help in those days. 

Dad's day of freedom came when junior was about 15 years 
old. He was big enough to drive a bundle wagon this year and 
had joined the ranks of the "men". Just a few years earlier he 
had graduated from Sunday "knee britches" (breeches) to long 
pants . 

With his team and wagon he drove into the wheat field. He 
was warned to "bind" the load well. After getting on a "jag" 
he asked the pitcher how it looked and got a nod of approval 
that it would "ride". As he drove that steel tired wagon up 


the lane one wheel dropped in a mud hole and he felt the load 
"shift" (slide). His heart weakened as he saw the load's 
rectangular shape had changed. 

By dropping the speed to "supper low" and holding his 
breath he figured he could make it to the machine. But luck 
was against him! As he neared Old Coaly one corner slipped 
off. He drew the belt side of the separator and drove too 
close. As the belt screeched against the bundle buts, the man 
tending the separator yelled to get the load away and those 
were precious inches. 

To make matters worse, the wind was strong and he had the 
dirty side. With that divider board in the feeder it was hard 
to throw the bundles head first in and about every other one 
fell on the ground. Every time his fork clanked on the feeder 
there was one sheaf less on the wagon. 

Finally after a super human effort he got his "shirt tail' 
load of "topped out for rain" off and he became a man! And, 
life for day became easier. 

One night I went to the straw stack and killed about 40 
English sparrows who had burrowed into it for nesting. They 
were given to my neighbor lady who made a "pot pie" from the 
breast. She said this was a delicacy in her native state of 


Wheat was traded for flour at the mill and mother would 
bake those large brown loaves from it. Perfection, Gold Medal, 
and Vesta were common brands. Vienna was made in Milford, but, 
when World War I started I was told the name had to be changed, 
because it was the capital of Austria-Hungary. 

- 64 - 


(12th in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

A week end spent, holy and true, and you won't worry of 
Monday blue. 

This just about sums up wash day of early times and today. 

Breakfast over, the copper wash boiler was filled with 
water and put on the old wood range stove. In those early days 
many of the clothes were "boiled" and then lifted from the 
boiler with a broom stick. Then, with the application of some 
"soft soap" they were rubbed on the zinc washboard and then put 
into a tub of water where a few squeezes of the bag of "bluing" 
seemed to bring out that color on the clothes. 

After twisting the clothes or running them through the 
hand-turned wringer they were ready for the clothes line in the 
front yard or hanging on the picket fence. 

As those clean clothes tossed to and fro in the gentle 
breeze a feeling of pride came into a woman's heart. 

Truly the coming of the hand and then power washing 
machines were a God send to our hard working mothers. Those 
washboard hands were a far cry from the many hand lotion ones 

- 55 - 

of today. 

'Soft Soap' 

"Soft soap" was made by filling the old salt barrel with 
wood ashes and pouring water over them. The backing water was 
caught and boiled to the density that would float and egg. 

This solution saved the money that would be necessary to 
buy Red Seal lye. After adding fats such as tallow, meat 
fryings, old lard, etc., and boiling, you had soap. 

There was a common saying that "flattery" was like soft 
soap or it was about half lye (lie). 

The early settler also found if you planted cabbage seed 
after burning a brush pile you would get thrifty plants. 
Potash wasn't known by name but these people knew what it would 


One of the delightful days was butchering. That was the 
day to play hooky from school. 

When you were called to get up before daylight the big 
iron kettles were filled with water and the fire beneath was 
crackling and sending out its glow in the darkness. 

One of the custom butcherers, Wesley Charlton, Martin, or 
later Orville Lutes, Isaac Tusing, Sylvanus Mellot, among 

66 - 

others, had set this day to do your job. Maybe a neighbor or 
two would come to exchange with you. 

From four to eight hogs were commonly butchered. Head 
cheese (sort of Brunsweiger ) , side meat (bacon), pig souse 
(from hocks and ears) or hog knuckles and sauerkraut, patty 
cakes or linked sausage, a piece of tenderloin dropped in the 
boiling lard or some fresh "cracklings" from the pressed out 
lard. These along with ham brought the saying of "eating high 
on the hog." 

Canning or salting ended the preserving process along with 
some hickory smoking. 

One day a peddler told me that in Greece they covered the 
hog with straw and set it afire. I'm willing to try anything 
once. If I hadn't gotten scared and put out the fire because I 
thought it was cooking the hog, it would have been successful 
but as it was I had a mess. 

My brother, Foy, and family of Mount Prospect, Illinois, 
haven't gotten butchering out of their systems yet! 

The present lean hog is a far cry from the 10 to 12 month 
lardy hog of the Island settlers. 

With 20 to 40 gallons of lard, a bin of potatoes, wheat 
for flour, plenty of meat and canned fruit, and a wood shed 


full of dry hard wood, you were ready for a cold winter and 
visiting with neighbors on those long evenings. 


Sorghum or "cane" was raised for molasses. It was a 
variety something like now used for silage. The leaves were 
stripped from the stalk before frost. 

After cutting and tying in bundles they were hauled to Mr. 
Hamman at Milford, Enos Hollar or Eli (Daddy) Hershberger to 
crush and boil. 

For spreading on bread, molasses cookies, cakes, etc., it 
was an important food. 

Apple Butter 

In those early days nearly everyone had an orchard and 
strange to say many of the diseases now that are common were 
absent or caused little trouble. 

With two or three 50 gallon barrels and a load of apples 
you went early to the cider mill. After waiting in line an 
hour or so you would get the juice pressed from the apple. 

After arriving home this apple cider was boiled down in a 
copper kettle to about one-twelfth its original volume. Into 
this preservative was poured the "snits" or parts of pealed 
apples which the neighbors had helped do the night before. 
From 15 to 25 gallon crocks full of tarty applebutter was 


common and wow, was it ever good! 


That old saying, "There's only two things sure -- death 
and taxation." I've heard it many times. Many taxes are 
levied for an emergency -- like the income taxes, but, they're 
so easily collected that they are never stopped. 

Showing the tax on 36 acres of land, which I own, was 
$11.35 for a year. It is dated April 28, 1904. On April 12, 
1933, the same land was taxed at $15.24 for a year. This was 
when we used up the surplus when we didn't build a new school 

In the spring four neighbors would each put a team on the 
large road grader to fill those large axle deep mud ruts. On 
that smooth flat surface, in April bare footed, it seemed you 
could "fly" down the road! 

In the fall with a pair of basswood "dumpboards" cut out 
at Lentz saw mill you would haul your levied number of yards of 
gravel for your "land" tax. 

This along with several neighbors would make a distance of 
two blocks a year or so. After walking in mud the majority of 
the way home from school you felt like you were walking on the 
kings highway, even though it was a short distance. 


Most of the early gravel was taken from the Orn gravel pit 
where Clarence Stieglitz now owns. The Moor or Berger pit 
furnished the west end - gravel. Sometimes cutting brush or 
mowing the roadside was land tax. 

The ditches were dug by allotment. You were given a 
certain distance to clean out, generally in the fall. Some did 
a poor job and these ditches were unsatisfactory. 

The next step was when you paid your assessment or tax and 
one man did the job. The road supervisor for a section of 
township was taken by the township trustee which was better. 
Finally the county highway and a gasoline tax brought us our 
fine gravel and blacktop roads. 

Now, with the new drainage laws going into effect we hope 
it will be an improvement to the past tho we face it with 

With only a teacher to pay and some fuel and a little 
repair there was little tax to pay for schools. 

So with poor roads, poor drainage, poor schools and low 
taxes, advancement was slow. Should one kick on taxes? Not if 
well spent! We got just about what we paid for. 

70 - 


(13th in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

As I walk through the Island cemetery or other cemeteries 
a feeling of sadness comes over me. Here is a family tombstone 
and maybe one to four markers with angel carvings of infants 
who failed to survive birth. 

[iere lies a young mother who died while the husband went 
to get a midwife, there lies a schoolmate who was the victim of 
appendicitis, another one died from whooping cough and still 
another from membraneous croup or choleral infantum. 

Then I think of my little miracle grandson -- born two and 
a half months prematurely with the lowest weight at one pound, 
five and one-half ounces. At 21 months he is a normal child 
weighing about 30 pounds. 

And so as I write these comments it is with thankfulness 
for the medical discoveries that have come in my lifetime. 
Under no circumstances is this a criticism of any of our 
parents or forefathers. They did the best they knew how. 

\-Jhen I read and hear of the medical needs of the people of 
undeveloped countries I think of the not too distant past when 
we were in the same "boat". 

- 71 

First of all it was the time of "patent" medicines and 
"quack" doctors. Everyone, especially the unscrupulous had a 
cure for everything. And, when you are sick and don't know 
what to do you'll try anything. Another thing there was a 
common belief among many that sickness was the result of sin. 
This argument I've heard many, many times. 

The following are advertisements of 1898: 

A. This is the only non-alcholic , invigorating beverage. 
It cures all stomach and heart trouble, regulates the bowels 
and appetite, strengthens both the muscular and nervous system. 

B. When you use Sarsaparilla you get rid of pimples, 
boils, eruptions and scrofula. It is the best tonic for the 
nerves and regulator for the stomach, liver and kidneys and 
gives you new strength and vigor. 

C. This one restores your appetite, gives you restful 
sleep, perfect digestion, quiets your nerves and brings back 
new energy. 

How do these stack up with the hundreds of medicines which 
are on a drug store shelf? Thanks to the Pure Food and Drugs 
act many wild claims have been stopped. 


Early Settlers 

When an early settler built his home it was on the highest 
spot of his farm -- many times up a lane from the road with the 
house higher than the barn. Many had dug wells until, they 
could have a driven one. Many times these open wells were 
polluted from run off water from toilets, etc., and other 
filth. Dysentery and typhoid fever were common. 

Flies from manure piles and garbage swarmed everywhere. 
Fly traps, Daisy fly killers, and sheets of waxy fly paper 
helped some. Sometimes the screen door would be thrown open 
and the waving of cloths would drive out the flies from the 
room. Some thought cotton pieces on the door would keep the 
flies away. My what a blessing the modern fly killers are! 

And with night would come those hordes of mosquitoes from 
the surrounding marshes and undrained holes as well as the old 
rain barrel used to collect rain or soft water. Many suffered 
from the "ague" or chills, which was a form of malaria. 

Some of those blood sucking insects seemed about as big as 
elephants. Mosquito "netting" was commonly used on the 
windows. Higli room ceilings were healthy but night air was 
considered unhealthy so the windows were closed at night. 


Physiology was taught but later hygiene and teaching was a 
big step forward. Language or English, which took the place of 
Grammar, was a big improvement too in the schools. 

A Cold 

When you got a cold or cough you took cough drops, liquid 
couch medicine or some other concoction that generally had a 
high alcoholic content. You then soaked your feet in hot 
water, rubbed your chest with liniment and lard (some brave 
soul used skunk grease), covered it with a scratchy wool 
flannel and went to bed. What a blessing flu shots or 
penicillin would have been! 

And then when a child failed to grow or you didn't know 
what was the matter you might have "flesh decay" and you would 
be taken to be "measured". After some sort of "pow wow" by a 
person who couldn't "charge" you might get better. A child who 
was born with a deformity was believed to have been "marked" 
before birth. 

Probably the most lingering of all diseases was 
consumption. Very few ever out grew this disease and it took a 
heavy toll of lives. This heavy damp foggy weather from the 
marshes helped the disease. Consumption (consuming) is now 
known as tuberculosis and thanks to the modern methods of 

- 7^ 

detection and cure it is not hopeless. Who ever heard of 
"vitamins" then? 

With the coming of pasteurization of milk, along with 
refrigeration of foods, the problem of bacteria in foods has 
been largely eliminated. And, with these have come baby 
formulas and this brought mothers from the slavery of breast 
feeding which was needed in early days. 

Probably the "flu" epidemics of World War I took more 
lives than any one year. There was hardly a well person to 
care for the rest of the family. Many pregnant mothers lost 
their lives with this killing disease. 

If we had had the hospital and medical facilities we now 
have back in 1900, we probably would have a four to 
5,000,000,000 population now. 

With all these modern methods and conveniences how happy 
we should be. Yes, we should be willing to share with other 
unfortunate peoples our blessings through CROP this fall. 

P. S. I don't want to leave the impression that sin and 
intemperance do not have "price tags" on them. 

See you next week. 



(lAth in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

As I pass that large lone rock on the corner of the 
Milford Public Library lawn my thoughts turn again to the 

Sorry, but I'm mistaken, for on it are placed the names of 
the soldier boys of World War I and if these men gave their 
brave exploits in battle it would fill many books of adventure. 
As I look over the names of many of these I knew as a lad, 
surely I would say, "This rock holds the hallowed names of our 
defenders and is not 'lonesome'." 

This stone was deposited by glacier action on the Mose 
Hershberger farm on road llOON (now owned by Jonas Yoder). 

About 1914 Mr. Hershberger used his Mogul farm tractor, 
assisted by a team of horses, to pull this huge stone from the 
field and place it along the road in his front yard. This was 
the first two-cylinder, 16-horse, two-plow tractor with steel 
lugs that I saw on the Island. 

On a white background on this rough stone was scribbled in 
red paint the Bible verse, "Be not deceived, God is not mocked, 
for whatsoever a man soweth that shall he also reap." 


Buggy horses "shied" away from that object like kids from 
a cemetery on Halloween. 

The Stone Is Moved 

When Joseph Baumgartner spear-heading the move, the Ancil 
Geiger Post of the American Legion of Milford (Mr. Geiger, who 
lived the first house south of Island Chapel Church, died at 
Camp Custer, Michigan, of the flu) moved this big "darnick" to 
its present location. 

And now with some help from Dr. Hugh Snyder, who came to 
the Milford community from Silver Lake and has been one of our 
outstanding citizens for about 40 years, I'll proceed. Onions 
growing and associated with the Geiger boys, as in those days, 
his life has been varied and not always a "bed of roses are 
ease" as was a common saying. 

With that old vehicle, the mud boat, and probably four 
horses, James "Jim" Long, with some help from Ortie Leemon, the 
local blacksmith, this memento was slid on the snow the seven 
miles to its final resting place on the library lawn. 

The Legion sold guesses as to the weight of this stone to 
raise money. Somewhere in the records of the Legion is this 
information. A fair guess might be three to 4,000 pounds. 

Mr. McDougal of Goshen dressed the stone down and the 
bronze plaque was installed with meticulous care. In getting 

- 77 

all the names put on one was omitted. It was put on extra. 
Whose is it? I think this project was in the middle twenties. 
I welcome help. 

When I think of these men who risked their lives for our 
liberty and who wanted to live their lives "under the fig tree 
in peace" the same as you and I, it makes your temper rise at 
these anti-Vietnam marches. 

The pattern is the same, the Japanese took to go south in 
World War II. In the time it took to tell it -- it spread all 
over the south Pacific. 

There is a saying, "The first mistake is yours." Most 
folks feel that we should quit throwing money away on give away 
projects and concentrate on our job ahead with all we have! 

I wish I had time now to tell you of blacksmi thing with 
Bert McCloughen, Amy Hollar and Sherman Locke. Also a true 
battle story of the Battle of the Marne, France. But my time 
is running out. 

The Truth 

I met my friend Amy Hollar on Main street just a few days 
before his last trip to the hospital where he died. 

Out of a "Blue" sky he accused me of not telling "all" the 
truth. I was taken "aback" and expressed my apology. He went 


on to say, "You didn't tell the people my father, James Hollar, 
walked all the way to the Island the first time he came out 
from Virginia. You did not tell them I walked two miles to the 
Hastings school and did the janitor work for five cents and 
then I got a raise to six cents a day." 

Now I'm going to tell you in the remainder of these 
articles some of the things you readers told me I missed. 

Probably one of the things that make most parents sad, 
including myself, is our inability to have done for our little 
tots what we would like to have done. And yet, it may have 
been for their best interest. 

As I sat with a sorrowing husband whose wife lay dead in a 
casket near us he had this testimony: "I feel bad to think I 
hadn't the money to buy her electric appliances, automatic 
washers, gas heat, nice clothes, anything in modern living." 

"We were as poor as 'Job's turkey' and with our family, 
she was a true mate in rearing our children and feeding them. 
Oh, if I could have just provided them in those trying times of 
our early marriage." 

Maybe you think I overplay those hard times, but, anyone 
who has had these experiences will never get used to this 
"cradle to the grave" security. "Sweet are the uses of 

- 79 - 
idversity ..." says William Shakespeare. 
See you next week. 


(15th in a Series) 
By Kenneth Haney 
Can you identify the following names? 

1. Milk Shake 

2. Frog Pond 

3. Pig Island 

4. Lick Skillet 

5. Vittles 

Talking about telling the truth last week reminds me that 
it is sometimes elusive and changeable. I also want to say I'm 
no psychologist or theologian, although I have had some college 
courses on them. 

As a preface to this story I wish to remind you that 
people's makeup are slow to change. You be the judge! 

I probably heard the following story as a lad sitting on a 
nail keg in the Hastings store: 

In the 19th century there lived on the Island two fine 
neighbors whom we'll call Bill and John. Both were wonderful 
husbands, loveable individuals, and had hearts as "big as an 
ox" when it came to helping anyone in need. Kinfolk and nearly 
everyone would admit they had no enemy in the world. 

Bill had a short-coming of not being too good a listener 


or rememberer and sometimes added or subtracted from what 
gossip he heard which sometimes caused some friction in the 
neighborhood. But we'll say it was not intentional. 

One morning John VN^as splitting rails from logs and 
building a fence along a road. It was one of those off-days we 
are subject too! I don't know whether it was the weather, or 
his wife failed to have sausage and pancakes (which stuck to 
your ribs) for breakfast. 

As he saw Bill, his neighbor, come on a full gallop down 
the tree lined road, he thought of an unkind and false remark 
or story that Bill was supposed to have made him and his temper 

He said he wouldn't believe Bill "one a bet!" 

With a whoa and a sudden stop Bill passed the time of day 
saying "good morning, neighbor." His only reply from John was, 
"Tell me another one, I won't believe you!" 

With the drop of his head Bill said, "I'm sorry but my 
mother-in-law, who lives with us, died last night and I'm going 
to get the undertaker." I7ith a gid-ap and break-neck speed he 
took off on his mission towards town. 

As John worked along his conscience began to bother him. 
Yes, he had acted like a kid in answer to a cheery greeting. 
Yes, with death in the home he had just increased his friend's 

- 82 - 

burden and in such situations tenderness and sympathy are 
needed more than ever. As he mulled over these thoughts of 
asking penitence and forgiveness he quit early for dinner. 

As he told his good wife of what transpired she agreed 
that he had said the wrong thing and should make amends. After 
dinner they dressed up and with a desire to help their 
sorrowing neighbors and "patch up" their differences by asking 
forgiveness they started. 

On the way over they stopped at several neighbors to tell 
them of the death of Bill's mother-in-law. And, each was soon 
getting ready to go and do what they could in this hour of 
bereavement . 

When Mr. and Mrs. John arrived at Bill's home they were 
eating dinner. With a melted heart John asked for forgiveness 
for what he had said in the morning. He went on to say, "I 
won't make such statements again." 

Just then the mo ther-in-lav/ came from the living room to 
the kitchen. John turned to Bill and said, "You big liar. You 
" and all Bill said was, "You asked for it, didn't you?" 

And John recnembered his morning greeting, "Tell me another 
one, I won't believe you!" 

He did believe Bill. 

83 - 

The Answers 
Have you identified the names? See how many you had 

1. The Milk Shake was a local train from Garrett to 
Chicago on the Baltimore and Ohio that hauled milk and local 
passengers every morning. 

2. Frog Pond was a school house east of Waubee Lake. 

3. Pig Island was a large hill on the southwest part of 
the Henry Stieglitz farm. 

4. Lick Skillet was the nickname for the Mt. Tabor 
School . 

5. Vittles was another name for food in the early days. 

More That I Forgot 

And now, some more things I forgot to tell you. 

Victor Yeager told me that the road and marsh west of 
Hastings was a big sea of mud and water as he \>?ent home from a 
date after a big rain. Someone asked why he and Berlin became 
preachers and his reply was, "I guess my father, Charles, 
prayed it on us." What a wonderful compliment to a parent. 

Chloe (Tusing) Stone reminds me she won the baby beauty 
contest conducted by the Hastings Band at one time. 

Our pastor, R.R. Wilson, carried water barefooted in 
Michigan to the men threshing. As he tossed the big jug on the 

84 - 

wagon it missed and fell and broke his big toe, which wasn't 
corrected . 

My father, Peter Haney, was cutting marsh hay with a 
scythe when a rattlesnake bit his big toe. A drink of whiskey 
served as an antidote to counteract the poison and saved his 
life, but the toe was deformed. 

Rudy Sierk reminds me of the big flocks of prairie 
chickens that roamed the marshes during the hemp growing period 
and have now vanished. 

Dick and Ed tlepler reminded me they hauled hemp from the 
Graham Marsh to Pierceton. 

Harvey Hollar says he was a Milford Mail salesman from 
birth. A free subscription to the MM by Jack Forbing caused 
his father Erasmus to become a subscriber for many years. 

Otho Oster, Gonstantine, Michigan, remembers Jacob 
Swartzlander telling how he accidently dropped his lighted pipe 
in a powder room in the Civil War. He said he had to do a lot 
of tramping to put out the fire. 

Vern Dausman of Oswego reminded me of a driving horse 
named either Dan or Dan Patch, owned by his fatlier, Samuel, 
that was one of the fastest on the Island. It was always a 
question with me whether Mooney, owned by Grandma Rumfelt, or 
Dan was the faster. He also reminded of the time his Grandpa 


was pickpocketed in the Chicago Stock yards for $40. As a 
child he said it sounded like a million dollars! It was a lot 
of money then. 

Talking of pickpockets, a gypsy lifted Earl Biller's purse 
for a considerable amount one day. 

Henry Biller reminds me that John Dillinger, robber and 
killer, stopped and asked for road directions from him while in 
his front yard just a few days before he held up the Warsaw 
police station and escaped with guns and ammunition. 

This was not long before he was betrayed by a woman 
dressed in red and shot and killed by Chicago police as he 
emerged from a theatre about 1933. 

I forgot to say I was sitting on a threshing machine 
separator blower on my birthday. A new pair of overalls, given 
me as a present, caught in a cog. After the machine was 
stopped my one pant leg was cut off above the knee. A close 
birthday call! 

William Murphy told of a horse losing its tail in a 
separator belt and subsequently ran away. A gruesome sight. 

Tom Roberts was a local engineer for many years in the 
community and I forgot to mention him. 



(16th in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

Next to the fear of spooks and ghosts was that of the 

These nomadic people traveled in groups of 10 to 20 wagons 
resembling those used by those going west. They v/ere drawn by 
two horses with hooches (colts) tied along side and a cargo of 
kids . 

They lifted anything they got their hands on. These men 
would take hay, corn or anything to feed their skinny horses 
(sometimes called nags or plugs). 

They were "smooth" horse traders. Reminded me of trading 
pocket knives in school "sight unseen." You traded a beautiful 
handled knife with no blades for one with sharp blades and the 
handle broken. 

The women would roam the country telling fortunes, curing 
your neuralgia or arthritis by "laying their hands" on you and 
leaving with your purse. 

Sometimes they would say they had a sick child in the 
wagon to get sympathy and gain entrance to the home. 

The story v;as that they sometimes abducted little 


They were never jailed, just ordered to give back their 
"snitched" goods and move on. 

With the coming of cars they took on modern 

Stealing was not in the gypsy language. 

Don Fox reports his father Jacob was sorting pickles in 
the back yard when a gypsy woman came to tell his fortune. 
They generally camped in the Hastings school yard. As she 
started to go after failing to tell his fortune, she said, 
"I'll just take this little kid along." Don "skeeda t tied" into 
the house and never came out that day. 
Others Remember 

And then, there was the pony ranch on the Jacob Walters 
farm (now owned by Harvey Hollar and Verl George). To a child 
a pony has always been a must at a certain age. 

These 40 to 60 beautiful Shebang ponies were like a Sears 
or Montgomery Ward catalog -- just wishing books. Very few 
could afford these "high priced" luxuries and they were just 
that in comparison with other things. 

At the noon hour when the onion weeders rested the larger 
boys would ride pet -- Speed, Fly, Beauty, Blacky, etc. -- but, 
as some of us were too small we could only look and wish pa and 
ma had more money. 

In talking about raising hemp Herman George relates this 
incident : 

One morning he and George Carl of Nappanee started for 
Pierceton to get two loads of hemp machinery. The first day's 
journey took them to Pierceton. They loaded the machinery and 
bedded down the horses for the night. 

Early the next morning they took the old Pierce ton-Winona 
road to Warsaw. Just west of Pierceton, near a creek, the road 
had been raised and filled with new dirt. It was their luck to 
meet several loads of logs coming toward town. 

In attempting to pass on this narrow road the berm gave 
way and dumped their machinery down the incline. Patiently and 
with much labor the loads were put on the wagon again. They 
made Warsaw by night fall. 

The next day through the mire and mud on old 15 they made 
Milford. Sometimes as they rested their horses the load would 
sink and they had to double team to start again. 

The next day -- Nappanee and home. 

The Laughlin brothers were now ready to process the hemp 
that was to be one of the main booming businesses of Nappanee 
for a decade. 

- 89 

My mother, Mrs. Frances B. Haney, received a letter from 
Mrs. Leona (Pinkerton) Seckles of Dearborn, Missouri, last 
week. She is the daughter of "Big" Wes Pinkerton of the 
Pinkerton settlement. 

As a maiden she palled around with mother and Miiinie 
Weimer. These ladies hover around the 90-year mark. 

On our way to Houston, Texas, about eight years ago, Mrs. 
Haney and I stopped in St. Joe, Missouri, to visit Mr. Seckles. 
Wish I had time to recite her early Island life before moving. 

My mother's home place was at the south edge of Jefferson 
Township, now owned by my brother. Loyal. 

My grandfather, William Weaver, moved there from the south 
side of Big Turkey Lake (Wawasee). Many times he would go to 
Syracuse by crossing the big lake, through the channel at 
Oakwood Park and end up at now Syracuse Lake to do his trading. 

Fish was plentiful and was one of the main sources of food 
in those days. 

Vr -.V •-•- 

Someone reminded me I forgot Dog Town, a nickname for 
Gravelton, and that I failed to mention that Ransom (Spinner) 
Sawyer of that city was one of the last of the traveling 
butchers. A practice that has now disappeared. 


Many tiines my thoughts go back to the old log house that 
stood about 40 rods to the southeast of where I live. 

Many times as you walked over the upstairs floor you could 
see your footprints in the white snow that had sifted through 
the cracks during the night. 

Wading those two to four feet snowdrifts to Hastings 
school and arriving with frozen hands or ears was not for the 
timid -- frozen dinners, no lights on those gloomy days. High 
school five to seven miles away -- not pleasant thoughts. 

And then when I hear folks with modern homes, cars, 
televisions, radios, and about everything that money can buy I 
think of the saying, "Contentment consisteth not in the 
abundance of things," else everybody would be happy and 
singing. I am thankful for these challenges in life. 

I suppose I had to stay in at recess to learn some poetry 
about as much as anybody. After teaching school for many years 
and in my present occupation many of these "gems" come to mind. 

The "Village Blacksmith" on Emeline street where the 
sparks would fly as a hot shoe was shapened for a horse's hoof 
stirs my memory. 

91 - 

He goes on Sunday to the church and sits among the boys. 
He can hear the parson prayer and preacher and hear his 
daughter's voice sitting in the village choir and it makes his 
heart rejoice. . .Can you finish the poem? 

And then, as I view the Montcalm-Wolfe monument on the 
Plains of Abraham in Quebec, Canada, I muse: 

I boast of heraldry the pomp of power 

And all that beauty or that wealth 'er gave, 

Await alike the inevitable hour 

The path of glory lead but to the grave. 

Standing in front of the monument in Gettysburg Cemetery 
you repeat the immortal lines by Lincoln, "Four score and seven 

years ago our fathers shall not perish from the 

earth. " 

Are you acquainted with "Gradadim," "To a Water Fowl," 
"Grays," "Elegy," "Snow Bound," "The King of the Golden River," 
or "The Great Stone Face"? Ah! You can't beat this good 
literature and thoughts. We need more of this uplifting 
influence and less of the cheap degrading paperbacks for our 

- 92 


(Last in a Series) 

By Kenneth Haney 

Mrs. Haney and I have been fortunate in visiting and 

traveling through 43 of the states in the continental United 


As we travel there lurks in our minds -- "Oh! that our 
parents would have had the opportunities that we have of going 
places." Most of them never got out of the state. 

l^ith the pleasure of traveling and as a conclusion to 
these articles about the Island I would like for you to read 
this poem which was the end of a series of articles I wrote on 
western travel several years ago. 

Original -- Kenneth Haney 
Just a little less griping and a little more grip 

A little more sober and a little less sip; 
A little less getting and a couple more gifts, 

A little less pushing and a little more lift. 
A little more flying and a few less flops, 
A few less sighs and a few more trips; 

- 93 

And I tell you friends as we go along 

Our hearts will sing a joyful song. 
A little less piece of your tongue to give, 

A little more peace of mind to live; 
A little more joy and a little less woe, 

A little more kindness and a little less toe 
Forget this humdrum life, 

And journey with your tired wife, 
And it will follow ere the day is gone 

She'll be singing a loving song. 
Nov/, let's plant the beans and corn, I say. 

Combine the oats, and make the hay; 
Harvest the wheat, and still the spear. 

For vacation time is nearly here. 
Close up the shop, shut down the mill, 

Close up the store, and forget the till; 
And I say to you neighbors in the summer long. 

You'll be hvimming a happy song. 



So buy a new tire, put in a plug, 

Cast in the baggage, give her a hug; 
Put in some gas, lay in a stove, 

Throw in a tent, for we're going to rove. 
Pull up the blind, put down the sash. 

Turn off the juice, pick up your cash; 
And with your kids all packed in, strong 

There'll come forth a merry song. 
Okefenokee or Tower of 3ok, 

Cascades of Washington or Mount of Rock, 
I see views of Canyon Grand, 

All these and Dunes of Sand; 
Paul Bunyon, his ox, and Smokey Bear, 

Scent of pines and mountain air, 
And as you gaze on Niagara Falls, long, 

You'll remember your wedding song. 
You'll look in her face and say, "my dear" 

Possibly you'll shed a tear; 
That in this hustle, bustle, and busy life. 

- 95 

You neglected your Loving, faithful wife. 
You see her trust and you see her grace, 

You see the joy in her kind face; 
And with a wish her years would be long. 

You'll just whistle a grateful song. 
When you look in the fire and your steps are slow, 

Your eyes are dim and your hair is snow; 
And your wants are few, your old friends are still. 

Your youth is gone you're over the hill. 
And with a prayer that both of you, 

Can take a trip as you used to do; 
With Christ, you Guide -- it won't be long. 

Till your soul will sing an eternal song. 

Thanks to those who expressed their pleasure in these 
articles. I could go on and on but time doesn't permit. 

Thanks to all of you for your help. 

Last week began the solicit for CROP, and don't forget to 
take your good books and magazines to your church on December 
26 to be taken to the Indiana State Prison. 

Glad to have had you along in Hastings! Rye. 

96 - 


(Gladys Estep), 58 

Argos, 31 
Armey, Joe, 7 

Baker, Glenn, 38 

Barnhart, Grace (Oster), 19 

Baumgartner, Joseph, 76 

Baumgartner, Mrs. Ted 

Beach, Delia (Roberts 

Berger, Milton, 37 

Beer, Otto, 49 

Big Turkey Lake, 89 

Biiler, Arthur, 42 

Biller, Bertha, Bessie, 19 

Biiler, Bill, 42 

Biller, Boys, 55 

Biiler, Daisy (Tusing), 19 

Biller, Earl, 85 

Biller, "Coon" Earl, 56 

Biller, Mrs. Emma, 10, 56 

Biller, Henry, 19, 37, 42, 56, 85 

Biller, Mrs. Henry, 18 

Biller, Jesse, 19, 42 

Biller, Johnny, 45 

Biller, Madison (Matt) James, 4 

Biller, Royce, 37 

Biller, "Flick" Sam, 56 

Biller's, 29 

Blough, Tom, 19 

Bremen, 15 

Brittsan, C.R., 32 

Brock, John, 54 

Brown, John, 2 

Brumbaugh Cemetery, 36 

Brunings, 29 

Bushong, Joe, 2 

Cain , Ed , 14 
Caris, Phil, 50 
Carl, George, 88 
Charlton, Frank, 37 
Charlton, Gerald, 37 
Charlton, Wesley, 65 

97 - 

Clem, Jap, 33 

Clunette, 8, 16 

Coldeberg, John, 15 

Collins, ^ 28 

Collins, Ira, 50 

Collins, Sherman, 50 

Conkling Hill, 31 

Cotton, Gary and Ronnie, 52 

Coppes Brothers, 47 

Cummins, George, 1 

Cunningham, Bertha (Biller)< 


Darsh Marsh, 49 

Dausman, David, 5, 10, 31 

Dausman Ditch, 7 

Dausman, Samuel and Vern, 84 

Dausman's, 29 

Davis, Bessie (Biller), 19 

Davis, Lew, 37, 54, 56 

Davis, Otto, 56 

Deeter, U.R., 38 

DeFreese, Mrs. Stoffel, 2 

Deisch, David, 58 

Dick, Amanda (Jensen), 19 

Dierk, Henry, 43 

Dierks, Allen, 25, 54 

Dierks, Lawrence, 37 

Dillinger, John, 85 

Dutchtown Sawmill, 50 

Dygert, Tim, 50 

Erick, Henry, 59 

Estep, Cleo and Gale, 58 

Estep, Gladys (Mrs. Ted Baumgartner ) , 5! 

Estep, Grandma and Grandpa, 1 

Estep, Joe, 58 

Estep, Noah, 38 

Estep, Sam, 2, 58 

Esteps, 28 

Foraker, 56 

Forbing, Jack, 84 

Ford, Elder, 28 

Fox, Clara (Haney), 2 

Fox, Don, 87 

Fox, Mr. •!'< Mrs. Don, 45 

Fox, Jacob, 45, 87 


Fox, Welcome, 2 
Foxes, 29 
Fuller, James, 5 

Garrett, 83 
Geiger, Ancil, 76 
Geiger, Charlie, 9, 56 
Geiger, Frank, 9 
Geigers, 29 
George, Sherman, 88 
George, Verl, 87 
Good, Claude, 56 
Goshen, 76 
Graham Marsh, 84 
Gravelton, 56, 89 
Green, John, 2 
Griffith, Joe, 50 
Grove, Ziler, 53, 54 
Groves, Rev. W.E,, 33 

Haab, Thee, 11 

Hall, Arthur, 37 

Hamman , Mr . , 67 

Haney, Belle (Hollar), 19 

Haney, Clara (Fox), 2 

Haney, Daniel, 2, 15 

Haney, Mrs. Daniel, (Ella), 2, 38 

Haney, Edward, 15 

Haney, Emanuel, 15 

Haney, Foy, 65 

Haney, Mrs. Frances B., 89 

Haney, Katie, (Swar tdlander ) , 15 

Haney, Loyal, 89 

Haney, Oscar, 31, 52 

Flaney, Peter, 84 

Haney , Samuel , 1 5 

Haney, Wesley, 15 

Haney, William, Jr., 15 

Haneys, 29 

Hartsough, Harvey, 19, 87 

Hartter, Jacob, 58 

Hartter, William, 58 

Heckaman, Robert, 1 

Heiber, Frank, 58 

Heightsmith, Henry, 32 

Hepler, Dick, 84 

- 99 - 

Hepler, Ed, 84 

Hepler, Pearl, (Roberts), 19 

Heplers, Frank, 58 

Hershberger, Eli, (Daddy), 67 

Hershberger, Mose, 75 

Hill, Dave, 59 

Hollar, Alex, 54, 56 

Hollar, Amy, 77 

Hollar, Belle, (Haney), 19 

Hollar Boys, 55 

Hollar, Charlie "Sigh", 54, 56 

Hollar, Clarence, 19 

Hollar, Clarence (Sox), 58 

Hollar, Enos, 11, 12, 19, 29, 37, 45, 50, 53, 56, 67 

Hollar, Erasmus, 84 

Hollar, Ernest, 37 

Hollar, Fremont, 19 

Hollar, George, 56 

Hollar, Harvey, 84 

Hollar, Irvin, 19 

Hollar, James, 18, 78 

Hollar, John, 19, 54 

Hollar, Lloyd, 19 

Hollar, Loren, 19 

Hollar, Mace, 19 

Hollar, Paul, 37 

Hollar, Richard, 58 

Hollar, Robert, 58 

Hollar, Russel, 28, 37 

Hollars, 28 

Hoosier, John, 1 

Irvine, Bert, 36 

Irvine, Flossie, 19 

Island Chapel Church, 15, 76 

Jefferson Tov>/nship, 7, 89 
Jensen, Amanda, (Dick), 19 
Jensen, Arvilla, 19 
Jensen, Peter, 9 

Kaiser, Darell, 38 
Kaiser, John, 8-9, 58 
Kauffman, John, 2 
Keltner, Mr., 32 
Kilmer, Joyce, 46 
Kline, Butch, 56, 58 


Kline, Jack, 56, 58 • 

Kline, Walter, 9 
Krull, Albert, 58 

Lambert, Guy, 2, 14 

Lathrops, 28 

Laughlin Brothers, 88 

Leazenby, Dora (Tusing), 19 

Leemon, Ortie, 76 

Lentz, Albert, 49 

Lentz, Ed, 49 

Lentz Coal Company, 10, 49-50 

Lentz, Mrs. Emma, 9 

Lentz, Dr. Owen, 49 

Lentz Saw Mill, 47, 68 

Locke, Sherman, 77 

Long, "Jim" James, 76 

Losee, George, 11 

Lutes, Orville, 65 

McCloughen, Bert, 77 

McDonald, Gerald, 37 

McDougal, Mr., 76 

McGowns, 28 

McKibbin, Austin "Jack," 42 

McKown, Fred, 10 

McLaughlin, Jacob, 1 

McNeil, Libby, 14 

Marquart, Elizabeth i\ John, 15 

Martin, 65 

Me Hot, Sylvanus, 65 

Michael, Plomer, 11 

Milford, 1, 4, 32, 33, 34, 49, 50, 55, 56, 58, 59, 53, 67, 76, 

84, 88 
Milford Ice Company, 5 
Milford Public Library, 75 
Mishler, Mervine i*^ Wade, 33, 31 
Mitchell, Isaac, 50 

Monger's, (of Elkhart .«. Griffith), 50 
Moore, Billie, 37 
Mt. Tabor School, 83 
Murphy, William, 58, 85 
Mutschler Woodworking Factories, 47 
Myers, Ford Agency, 33 


13, 14, 51, 56, 

101 - 

Neff Ditch, 11 
Neff, Omer, 7 

Oakwood Park, 31, 89 

Orn , Charles, 4 

Orn Gravel Pit, 69 

Orn Road, 8, 39 

Oster, Mrs. Daniel, 14 

Oster, Dora, Glenice, Grace, 19 

Oster, Otho, 19, 84 

Oster, Susan (Ruinfelt), 15 

Oster, William, 15 

Oswego, 84 

Pierceton, 52, 84, 83 

Pig Island, 83 

Pinkerton, Glen, 37 

Pinkerton, Leona, (See Seckles), 89 

Pinkerton, "Big" Wes, 89 

Pinkerton, "Little" Wes, 29 

Pinkerton's, 29 

Pittman, Elder, 28 

Poe, Flossie, 19 

Prices, 28 

Rarry, Rev., 29 

Rheinheimer , Dr., 38 

Roberts, Delia (See Beach), 19 

Roberts, George, 8, 31 

Roberts, Pearl (See Hepler), 19 

Roberts, Tom, 19, 85 

Rohrer, Cora ( Swartzlander ) , 19 

Rohrer, Leland, 8, 42 

Rumfelt, Grandma, Susan (Oster), 

Rumfelt, Jim, 1 

Rumfelt, Mrs., 17 

Rumfelt, Oscar (Jim), 2 

Rumfelt, Robert, 2 

Rumfelt, Trella, 19 

Ruple, Don, 2 

Rymans , 28 

14, 15, 84 

Sawyer, Ransom (Spinner), 89 

Scott Company, 14 

Seckles, Mrs. Leona (Pinkerton), 89 

Seybert, Bishop, 15 

Sierk, Otto, 37 

102 - 

Sierk, Rudy, 37, 84 

Sierk, William, 38 

Silver Lake, 76 

Silveus, 28 

Silveus, Orville, 2 

Slabaugh, Aaron, 37 

Snyder, Dr. Hugh, 76 

South Jefferson Threshing Company, 58 

Sparklin, Charles, 34 

Spicher, Berniece, 37 

Stieglitz, Clarence, 69 

Steiglitz, Henry, 10, 13, 83 

Stone, Chloe (Tusing), 83 

Stump, Ben A William, 2 

Sumpter, Tom, 58 

Swartdlander , Katie (Haney), 15 

Swartzlander , Arvilla (Jensen), 19 

Cora (Rohrer) 

Edgar, Walter 
Swartzlander, Jacob, 22, 84 
Swartzlanders , 29 
Syracuse, 89 
Syracuse Lake, 89 

Teeple, Roy, 42 

Thaden, Roy, 25, 42 

Thwaits, Elmer, 10 

Troup, Irvin, 5 

Tusing, Arthur, Daisy (Biller), Dora (Oster), 19 

Tusing, Herbert <^ Roy, 19 

Tusing Boys, 55 

Tusing, Chester, 42 

Tusing, Chloe, (Tusing), 83 

Tusing, Harold, 50 

Tusing, Isaac, 65 

Tusing, Noah, 4 

Tusing, William, 2, 19, 50 

Tusing, Mrs. William (Oster), 14 

Tusings, 28 

Wagner, Glenice (Oster), 19 

Waldsberger, Ella, 42 

Walters, Jacob, 87 

Warsaw, 85, 88 

Waubee Lake, 5, 38, 39, 83 

Wawasee, 89 

Weaver, William, 89 


Wedrick, William, 10 
Weimer, Claude, 2, 53 
Weimer, Minnie, 89 
Weldy, Sam, 19 
Wilson, R.R., 83 
Wise, Carson, 2 
Wuthrich, Fred, Sr., 37 
Wysong, Charlie A Vern, 


Yeager, Berlin, 83 
Yeager, Charles, 83 
Yeager, Orville, 54 
Yeager, Victor, 83 
Yoder, Jonas, 75 

Zimmerman, Ernest ^ Joshua, 13 



NOV 95